AN OVERVIEW of AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD
DONATED for SCHEDULED SURGERY
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PRESENTED ON THIS PAGE IS AN EXHAUSTIVE REVIEW OF THE PROS AND CONS OF AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD DONATION, ITS USES AND STORAGE.

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Introduction

Preoperative Autologous Blood Donation

Surgical Procedures
Selection of Patients
Special Considerations
Technique
Handling and Storage
Release of Unused Autologous Units
Additional Autologous Components
Risks
The Role of Recombinant Erythropoietin in PABD

Perioperative Blood Salvage

Intraoperative Blood Salvage
      Surgical Procedures
      Selection of Patients
      Technique
Postoperative Blood Salvage
      Surgical Procedures
      Technique
Traumatic Hemothorax
Risks of Perioperative Blood Salvage

Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution

Efficacy
Surgical Procedures
Selection of Patients
Technique
Risks

Transfusion of Autologous Blood Components

Unused Autologous Blood - Why Is It Not Made Available for General Use?

Summary

References


INTRODUCTION

Autologous Blood transfusion is the collection and re-infusion of the patient's own Blood or Blood components. Allogeneic Blood, on the other hand, is collected from someone other than the patient. Over the last several years, an increased awareness of diseases transmitted by allogeneic Blood has resulted in a dramatic increase in autologous Blood transfusion. Approximately 16 million units are donated annually, and of those, about 643,000 are autologous. This number of autologous donations is growing each year. Clinical research and practice in autologous Blood use have also grown in recent years, providing new insights into the issues involved. The new insights are to be found most often at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's recommendations on the use of autologous Blood.1

Despite reduction of the risk of transmitting viruses such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B or C (HCV), autologous Blood transfusion remains safer than allogeneic Blood transfusion and appropriate for properly selected patients. Exclusive or supplemental use of autologous Blood can eliminate or reduce many adverse effects of transfusion. Directed donations, that is Blood donated by a friend or family member for a designated patient, are not as safe as the patient's own Blood and must not be considered equivalent to autologous donations.

Since most planned surgical procedures are not associated with sufficient Blood loss to result in transfusion, autologous Blood techniques are not appropriate for all patients. The transfusion experience of patients who have undergone similar procedures can serve as a guide. If transfusion is likely for a planned surgical procedure, several types of autologous transfusion can be used either alone or in combination:

preoperative autologous Blood donation (PABD),
intraoperative Blood salvage,
postoperative Blood salvage, and
acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH).

Standards, guidelines, and regulations exist for patient selection as well as processing and transfusion of Blood collected using autologous transfusion techniques.4-8 These should be used by each hospital's transfusion committee in establishing and monitoring autologous transfusion programs. Table I below, summarizes the accepted proper uses of autologous transfusion techniques for selected surgical procedures. Autologous techniques are considered inappropriate for many surgical procedures because the expected Blood loss is small and it is unlikely the patient will receive a transfusion. The best approach depends, in part, upon the surgical procedure planned. For example, PABD and postoperative Blood salvage are appropriate for patients undergoing revisions of total hip replacement, a procedure that frequently necessitates transfusions. However, intraoperative Blood loss for total knee replacement is minimal because tourniquets are used. Thus intraoperative Blood salvage would not be effective. 

Table I
Selected Surgical Procedure Autologous Technique
PABD IBS PBS ANH
Coronary artery bypass + + + +
Major vascular surgery + + - +
Primary hip replacement + + + +
Revision, hip replacement + + + +
Total knee replacement + - + -
Major spine surgery with instrumentation + + + +
Selected neurological procedures (e.g., resection of arteriovenous formation) + + - +
Hepatic resections + +* - +
Radical prostatectomy + +* - +
Cervical spine fusion - - - -
Intervertebral discectomy - - - -
Mastectomy - - - -
Hysterectomy - - - -
Reduction Mammoplasty - - - -
Cholecystectomy - - - -
Tonsillectomy - - - -
Vaginal and cesarean deliveries - - - -
Transurethral resection of the prostate - - - -
+Appropriate; - Inappropriate;   * See section on cancer surgery in IBS section on selection of patients;  PABD = preoperative autologous Blood donation;  IBS = intraoperative Blood salvage;   PBS = postoperative Blood salvage;  ANH = acute normovolemic

 


PREOPERATIVE AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD DONATION

In general, autologous Blood donations are indicated for patients having surgical procedures for which Blood could be needed, and for which Blood is likely to be cross-matched. Tables for the amount of Blood to be cross-matched for specific procedures are widely available in hospitals9 and may serve as guides for the amount of autologous Blood that should be collected.10 The less likely the possibility of transfusion, the more likely the donated Blood will not be used. Therefore, potential surgical patients should not be encouraged to donate autologous Blood for surgery unless there is a realistic possibility of transfusion, for example, the likelihood of transfusion is greater than 10%.

Surgical Procedures

For surgical procedures where transfusion is likely, autologous donations can provide some or all of the Blood components needed by the patient (see Table I). Nevertheless, PABD does not completely eliminate the possibility that the patient might receive allogeneic Blood. If the need for transfusion is greater than anticipated, or insufficient autologous Blood has been collected, the patient may need Blood from the allogeneic supply. Thus, during the discussion with the patient of the surgical risks and benefits, autologous donations cannot be presented as a guarantee against allogeneic transfusions.

The indications for PABD may be broadened and the number of units to be collected increased under unusual circumstances (e.g., patients with coagulation disorders that increase the risk of bleeding, or patients with alloantibodies for whom locating compatible Blood may be difficult).

Selection of Patients

Most patients who are healthy enough to undergo elective surgery will be able to donate Blood preoperatively. Determination of suitability for PABD is the responsibility of the physicians caring for the patient and the physician responsible for the Blood collections. In deciding to collect autologous Blood from a patient, the benefit of decreased exposure to allogeneic Blood must be weighed against the risk of making the donation and of delaying surgery for the time needed for adequate regeneration of red Blood cells (RBCs). Appropriate patients are those having:

elective surgery that can be scheduled at least several weeks in the future,
a surgical procedure for which Blood is usually cross-matched,
a hemoglobin > 110 g/L (hematocrit 0.33), and
no medical contraindications to the donation or storage of Blood.

Patients with conditions predisposing to bacteremia, such as those with an indwelling urinary catheter or a device penetrating the skin, are not eligible for PABD because bacteria collected with the Blood may proliferate during its storage.

Vasovagal reactions occur in about 2% to 5% of all Blood donors--either autologous or allogeneic. Most vasovagal reactions consist of lightheadedness due to transient hypotension and bradycardia and are self-limited. Severe reactions with loss of consciousness or seizure activity are uncommon.11,12 According to information from the American Red Cross, autologous Blood collections result in hospitalization of approximately 1 donor in 16,000 autologous collections per year (written communication, N. Rebecca Haley, M.D., May 1994).

Special Considerations

Special consideration should be given to the following situations:

Patients with coexisting medical conditions. Autologous donations can be safely obtained from patients with stable coronary artery disease, stable valvular disease, and congenital heart disease.13-16 One inadequately controlled recent report indicated that Blood donation may be associated with increased risks in patients with unstable angina, cyanotic congenital heart disease, severe aortic stenosis, and severe occlusive cerebrovascular disease.17 None of these studies involved large numbers of subjects.
Elderly patients. Age alone should not exclude a patient from autologous Blood donation. As with all patients, underlying diseases and the patient's physiologic condition are the determining factors. Elderly patients, even those who have never donated Blood, can successfully and safely participate in preoperative autologous Blood donation.
Pediatric patients. Autologous Blood has been collected from children as young as 8 years old. Children (and adults) weighing less than 110 pounds can safely donate, although the volume drawn at each donation is reduced in proportion to the body weight. Most individuals tolerate well a phlebotomy of up to 10% of their Blood volume. Other factors, such as venous access and emotional tolerance of venipuncture, occasionally limit the collection of autologous Blood from children.18
Obstetric patients. Several studies, each reporting a small number of patients, have not detected complications for either mother or baby from autologous Blood donation.19-21 However, so few mothers need transfusions during or after delivery that autologous donations should be discouraged for pregnant women. An exception may be the presence of a placenta previa as an indication for autologous donations because of the greater likelihood of transfusion.22

Technique

The decision to collect PABD should be based on a discussion between doctor and patient regarding the procedure's risks and benefits, after which the patient can be referred to a Blood collection facility. Here, the patient is evaluated for eligibility of autologous donation. Patients distant from the hospital where surgery is planned often can donate at a local Blood collection facility and have the Blood sent to the hospital.

Many patients can give Blood as frequently as every 3 days, although once a week is more common. Patients donating autologous Blood may benefit from oral iron supplementation; for example, ferrous sulfate 325 mg P.O. T.I.D. or ferrous gluconate 325 mg five times a day. The optimal donation period begins 4 to 6 weeks before surgery in order for a sufficient number of units to be donated and to enable more complete RBC regeneration. In any case, the last Blood donation should not be collected later than 72 hours before surgery to allow for restoration of intravascular volume.4 A single unit donation a few days before surgery will not be beneficial because minimal RBC regeneration will occur.

Handling and Storage

Autologous Blood components require special handling and segregated processing and storage compared with allogeneic units. In addition, increased personnel time is associated with collecting Blood from patients with complex medical histories as opposed to healthy donors. Therefore, autologous Blood often costs more than allogeneic Blood and may result in billing surcharges.

If a unit of autologous Blood is confirmed to be anti-HIV or HBsAg-positive, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that it be discarded.7 However, the donor may be transfused with these autologous components if permitted by the hospital and collecting facility and if appropriate documentation is provided by the patient's physician. The patient's physician should be informed if tests on a unit are positive for anti-HCV, anti-HBc, or syphilis.4

Number of Units Donated. Between one-third and one-half of collected autologous Blood components are not used by their donors.23-25 Collections in excess of transfusions are considered inevitable in order to provide sufficient Blood to meet the needs of most patients,10 although this complicates the logistics and adds to the costs of an autologous Blood program. However, those unused units of autologous Blood have given rise to the controversy regarding the appropriate transfusion of autologous collections.

Release of Unused Autologous Units

Unused autologous Blood is stored for the patient's perioperative needs for a variable period of time after the operation (in accordance with local policies and procedures). Typically, this Blood is stored until the patient's discharge or the unit's outdate. If a second surgical procedure is anticipated or if the scheduled procedure is delayed, the transfusion service may be able to arrange for extended frozen storage of the autologous Blood.

Unused autologous Blood is usually destroyed rather than being added to the allogeneic Blood inventory. Only a relatively small number of autologous units are suitable for transfusion to other patients because autologous donors often do not meet the health criteria required for allogeneic Blood donors. Furthermore, the suitable unit, when no longer needed by the donor, often has a very short shelf life. Thus, the adding of unused autologous Blood to the inventory would have little impact on the overall Blood supply and should not be considered a justification for requesting autologous donations from patients who are not likely to require transfusion.

Additional Autologous Components

Plasma. Autologous plasma should be prepared with the autologous RBCs.
Fibrin glue. Fibrin glue mixed with thrombin is a biologic adhesive used during surgery. It is prepared from plasma or cryoprecipitate. If the use of fibrin glue is anticipated and if preoperative donation is feasible, it should be prepared from autologous rather than allogeneic Blood.26
Autologous platelet-rich plasma. Autologous platelet-rich plasma can be collected from patients in the operating room using apheresis equipment. For cardiac surgery patients, this plasma is removed before cardiopulmonary bypass and returned after heparin reversal. Although the procedure has been advocated as a technique to improve hemostasis and limit Blood loss,27-29other data do not support its routine use.30-33

Risks

Despite the use of special systems to avoid administering the wrong unit of allo-geneic or autologous Blood to patients, such errors happen. The dependency of preoperative Blood donation and transfusion on clerical accuracy has resulted in increased vigilance. Nevertheless, the likelihood that autologous Blood is given to the wrong patient is not zero but can be estimated to be 1:30,000 to 1:50,000.34,35

The Role of Recombinant Erythropoietin in PABD

Several studies have demonstrated that administering recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) can increase the amount of autologous Blood that can be collected over a given period of time.36,37 Although rEPO increases erythropoiesis, its role in PABD is limited to a few situations, such as when a patient is already anemic or needs to donate an unusually large amount of Blood in a short time.38 The FDA has not approved the use of rEPO for autologous donation.  


PERIOPERATIVE BLOOD SALVAGE

Perioperative Blood salvage is the collection and reinfusion of Blood lost during and immediately after surgery. Once used almost exclusively during cardiac procedures, perioperative Blood salvage is now commonly used for vascular and orthopedic surgical operations, some solid organ transplants, and some trauma cases. See Table I for selected procedures where perioperative salvage may be appropriate, as well as examples where intraoperative salvage is usually unnecessary.

INTRAOPERATIVE BLOOD SALVAGE

The amount of RBCs recovered during surgery varies with the procedure but may amount to 50% or more of that lost. Even though the amount recovered may be equivalent to only one or two units of Blood for some patients, this may be of significant benefit, especially when combined with other autologous transfusion techniques. The posttransfusion survival of intraoperatively recovered RBCs is comparable to that of allogeneic RBCs.39,40

Surgical Procedures

In general, intraoperative Blood salvage is appropriate for the following surgical procedures:

Cardiac and vascular surgery. Intraoperative Blood salvage is valuable in most major vascular operations and during cardiac surgery.41,42 In addition to salvaging Blood lost during cardiac surgery, Blood remaining in the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit should be recovered.
Orthopedic Surgery. Intraoperative Blood salvage has been shown to substantially reduce the need for allogeneic transfusions in such procedures as spinal surgery39 and hip replacement.43
Other surgical procedures. Intraoperative Blood salvage can be used for other surgical procedures involving major Blood loss, such as trauma, liver transplantation, splenectomy, and ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Concerns remain about the safety of cause disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC); washing the salvaged bl Blood salvaged during cesarean deliveries because the infusion of amniotic fluid may ood may not eliminate this risk.

Selection of Patients

Many surgical patients who undergo procedures in which transfusions are likely can benefit from intraoperative Blood salvage, especially in cases where preoperative donation is impossible or inadequate.42 If the shed Blood is collected by sterile methods and properly reinfused, the procedure has few risks.

Relative contraindications to the use of intraoperative Blood salvage include:

Infection. No existing system of Blood filtering or washing can completely eliminate bacteria. As a result, intraoperative Blood salvage is not routinely used if the field is contaminated with bacteria. Contamination of salvaged Blood can occur in procedures with spilled intestinal contents, bacterial peritonitis, abscesses, or osteomyelitis. Nevertheless, for patients with massive life-threatening Blood loss, immediate reinfusion of Blood recovered from a contaminated field may be appropriate when adequate amounts of allogeneic Blood are not available. The safety of using potentially contaminated recovered Blood has been evaluated in only a small number of patients.44-46 Recovered Blood should not be stored since the bacteria may grow and multiply.
Cancer. Malignant cells are not completely removed from salvaged Blood by washing or filtration, and there is a theoretical risk that transfusion of Blood salvaged during surgery for malignancy may result in metastases. The safety of intraoperative salvage in cancer patients has not been established, although the technique has been performed in some cancer patients.47-50 The reinfusion of Blood that is grossly contaminated with malignant cells should be avoided.

Technique

Blood salvaged intraoperatively may be transfused directly after collection or processed (washed) prior to infusion. Controversy exists regarding the relative merits of washed versus unwashed salvaged Blood.51,52 Washed Blood has the theoretical advantage of reducing infusion of free hemoglobin, tissue procoagulants, and debris. Although data regarding the safety of unwashed salvaged Blood are limited, this form of autologous Blood is usually infused in relatively small amounts (<2 L) without significant adverse effects.53 When collecting Blood for infusion without processing, care should be taken to avoid hemolysis (due to high aspiration pressure and surface suctioning) and contamination with tissue debris. Because of the presence of debris and the high incidence of hemolysis, washing salvaged Blood during orthopedic procedures is indicated.

Commercially available equipment with disposable software exist for each option:

Semiautomated systems wash the collected Blood before re-infusion. The washed RBCs do not contain significant amounts of clotting factors or platelets. A trained, dedicated operator is essential to operate the equipment, even with the newer automated models.
Suction systems that collect Blood for re-infusion without washing are modifications of disposable suction systems. These machines are relatively inexpensive and technically easy to set up and use.

To ensure a quality Blood product for re-infusion, a well designed program and appropriately trained staff are necessary. The American Association of Blood Banks has developed guidelines and standards that are valuable in designing an effective intraoperative recovery program and maintaining quality assurance.53

POSTOPERATIVE BLOOD SALVAGE

Surgical Procedures

Postoperative Blood salvage is used most frequently for cardiac and orthopedic surgical patients.

Cardiac surgery. The reinfusion without washing of salvaged Blood obtained from mediastinal drainage after cardiac surgery is widespread and appears to be safe and effective.54 However, reinfusion of unwashed Blood may affect laboratory tests. For example, the Blood may contain cardiac enzymes, such as creatine kinase, so its reinfusion may complicate the diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction.55
Orthopedic surgery. Blood salvaged and reinfused after orthopedic surgery (e.g., hip arthroplasty and spinal fusion with instrumentation) may be safe and reduce the amount of allogeneic Blood given.56,57 Others, however, have not demonstrated the same efficacy.58,59 Small amounts have been reinfused with no apparent side effects,60,61 but fever,56,62 hypotension,61 and upper airway edema63 have been reported.

Technique

Blood salvaged postoperatively generally is collected from mediastinal, chest, and joint drains and transfused without washing. Because it is defibrinogenated, it does not require anticoagulation prior to transfusion. Although diluted, the Blood is sterile and has viable RBCs.64

TRAUMATIC HEMOTHORAX 

Blood that collects in the thoracic cavity following blunt or penetrating trauma is analogous to Blood shed following cardiac or orthopedic surgery. It is defibrinogenated and may be collected and transfused. Typically, this process is accomplished using chest drainage devices that have been adapted for Blood salvage.65

RISKS OF PERIOPERATIVE BLOOD SALVAGE
Dilutional coagulopathy. Because salvaged Blood is deficient in coagulation factors and platelets, patients receiving transfusions of large volumes of salvaged Blood (> 1 Blood volume) may develop hypofibrinogenemia, thrombocytopenia, and prolonged prothrombin (PT) and partial thromboplastin times (PTT).44 However, plasma and platelet transfusions generally are not required and should be given only when indicated by the clinical situation and laboratory tests. Although coagulation test abnormalities following infusion of salvaged Blood have been interpreted as evidence of DIC,66 these changes likely are the result of infusion of fibrin degradation products and do not represent a consumptive coagulopathy.
Reinfusion of anticoagulant. When heparin is used as the anticoagulant, infusion of unwashed Blood may cause systemic anticoagulation. In some cases, this anticoagulant effect may be undesirable. However, proper cell washing virtually eliminates the heparin.67,68
Renal insufficiency. Infusion of large quantities of unwashed Blood that contain hemolyzed RBCs may contribute to renal failure, particularly in patients with already compromised renal function. Hemolysis can be reduced by decreasing aspiration pressures and avoiding surface suctioning.69
Air embolism. As with all intravenous infusions, improper technique, such as applying pressure to air-containing systems, may lead to air embolism.
 

 

ACUTE NORMOVOLEMIC HEMODILUTION

Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is the removal of Blood with the simultaneous infusion of cell-free solution(s) to maintain intravascular volume prior to surgical Blood loss.70 Hemodilution is a transfusion option for patients who will tolerate a large, acute decrease in hemoglobin concentration. ANH reduces RBC loss because the Blood lost during surgery has a lower hematocrit. The removed Blood is reinfused during or after surgery, as needed, to maintain the desired post-ANH hemoglobin concentration. ANH requires vigilance, clinical expertise, and an understanding of the physiological consequences.

Efficacy

Mathematical analysis predicts that the efficacy of ANH increases with greater surgical Blood loss, higher initial patient hematocrit, and lower post-ANH hematocrit. In addition, mathematical analysis predicts that extreme hemodilution (for example, reduction to hematocrit 0.20), may result in substantial reduction of allogeneic Blood transfusions if surgical Blood loss is > 50% of Blood volume.71 Removal of several units of Blood in patients with Blood loss of < 50% of Blood volume may have little or no effect on the requirement for allo-geneic transfusion.72 Randomized studies show conflicting results regarding the efficacy of ANH, perhaps due to the varying conditions of each study.73-75 Further clinical studies are needed to test the models and determine the extent of efficacy.

Surgical Procedures

Table I lists examples of surgical procedures in which expected Blood loss may be substantial and ANH may be appropriate, as well as examples of surgical procedures in which expected Blood loss usually is not sufficient to warrant ANH.

Selection of Patients

ANH may be employed alone or in conjunction with other forms of autologous transfusion. Although PABD may be inadvisable for some patients with serious cardiac disease, withdrawing Blood in the operating room under carefully controlled and monitored conditions offers an alternative for many of these patients. When PABD is undesirable or impossible (e.g., there is a potential for bacteremia or too little time for donation), ANH may be an appropriate solution. ANH can also be considered when malignancy or infection at the operative site precludes the use of intraoperative Blood salvage.

Since ANH probably is efficacious only when the hematocrit is reduced to < 0.30, additional caution is necessary in patients with hepatic dysfunction or cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or pulmonary disease.

Technique

The amount of Blood removed depends on the patient's Blood volume and the initial and post-ANH hematocrits.76,77 The Blood must be collected into properly labeled Blood bags containing an anticoagulant. It may be stored at room temperature (to preserve platelet function) for up to 8 hours and up to 24 hours if appropriately refrigerated.4 The hematocrits of the units will vary between the initial hematocrit and the post-ANH hematocrit.

Risks

Hemodilution decreases hemoglobin concentration and oxygen-carrying capacity and content, thereby increasing the potential for critical organ ischemia to the same extent as does surgical Blood loss and replacement with non-oxygen-carrying fluid. The lowest safe hemoglobin concentration in humans, with or without disease of critical organs, is not known.
ANH dilutes circulating coagulation factors, as well as RBCs; platelet count decreases to a lesser extent. If abnormal bleeding is observed, laboratory tests of coagulation should be monitored.

 


TRANSFUSION OF AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD COMPONENTS

When should Blood (autologous or allogeneic) be transfused?

Blood components should be transfused only when they are needed. However, objective indications for the transfusion of Blood components are difficult to establish. The decision to transfuse RBC's is ideally based on the prevention of tissue hypoxia due to an oxygen transport deficit. No specific method to measure or anticipate a clinically significant deficit exists. In awake patients, symptoms of oxygen deficiency such as headache, lightheadedness, tinnitus, and faintness are nonspecific and do not lend themselves to the avoidance of symptomatic hypoxia. If available, base excess, the oxygen extraction ratio, serum lactate, and cardiac index can be used as surrogate markers. The hemoglobin and hematocrit are easily obtained laboratory values, but are far less likely to reflect the degree of oxygen deficiency in a patient because many other factors affect oxygen transport, such as underlying cardiac or pulmonary disease, cardiac output, and hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen.

Practice guidelines have been based on hemoglobin levels, although the inadequacy of this approach is widely recognized.78 In general, transfusions at or below hemoglobin levels of 70 g/L (hematocrit 0.21) are appropriate, whereas transfusions at hemoglobin levels above 100 g/L (hematocrit 0.30) rarely are indicated. Between these two levels, clinical circumstances such as the potential for further Blood loss and the patient's underlying condition will determine the decision to transfuse.

Should the indications for autologous Blood transfusion differ from those for allogeneic Blood transfusion?

The comparative indications for the use of autologous or allogeneic Blood are controversial. If precise indications for a Blood transfusion could be defined, autologous Blood could be used only in situations where allogeneic Blood would be given.79 On the other hand, the benefits of allogeneic and autologous RBC transfusions are similar, but the risks of autologous Blood are less. Hence, the risk-benefit ratio supports the more liberal use of autologous Blood.80,81

Although some physicians may choose to use autologous Blood components more liberally than allogeneic components for a given indication, autologous Blood should not be transfused merely because it has been collected. For example, the transfusion of autologous RBCs to the slightly or non-anemic patient or the use of autologous fresh frozen plasma in the absence of coagulopathy is inappropriate.

In what order should autologous RBC's be transfused when a variety of autologous components are available?

When multiple autologous RBC components are available, the decision to transfuse should be based on a variety of factors, such as the component's quality, safety, efficacy, and shelf life. Table II lists the shelf life of autologous RBCs.

Table II
Source of Red Blood Cells Shelf Life
Units collected during perioperative Blood salvage 6 hours
Units collected during hemodilution 8 hours
Thawed, previously frozen autologous red Blood cells 24 hours
Liquid-stored PABD units 35-42 days

 


UNUSED AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD

Why is Autologous donated Blood not made available for general use?

1. Liberal eligibility criteria to maximize patient participation

In order to enable as many patients as possible to donate Blood for their planned surgery we deliberately relax the medical eligibility criteria. For example, we lower the acceptable hemoglobin/hematocrit level and accept persons with serious medical conditions (e.g., cancer and heart disease) that would ordinarily disqualify them from donating for general use.

2. Unexpected conditions diagnosed after surgery (e.g., cancer) may render a donation unsuitable, requiring a recall

In this situation, if the unit had been designated for general use and transfused to another person, an FDA-mandated recall would have to be initiated. Because Blood banks would then have to notify recipients of recalled units and their physicians, and considerable expense and anxiety would result, we feel it best to have a single uniform set of criteria for donors of Blood intended for general use.

3. Since most autologous donations are unsuitable for general use, any savings from releasing these donations for general use would be outweighed by the administrative costs of subjecting the donors to a full medical history.

In view of this, and because these patients are usually making repeated donations over a short time, we limit the medical history to those questions addressing the safety of the donor. This reduces the time patients must take to make their donations.

4. Safety Concerns:

Some patients, fearful that mention of certain information may disqualify them from donating for themselves, may not fully disclose their medical history, thus increasing the possibility their Blood could transmit an infection to others.

Studies of the incidence of positive test results for infectious agents show higher rates among autologous donors than volunteer donors. Since a negative test result may occur in the presence of infection (= "false-negative"), this higher incidence of positive test results suggests that their Blood may be less safe than that of volunteer donors.

If autologous Blood were made available for general use, hospitals would have to maintain two inventories of this Blood. This increases the possibility for erroneous release, with an unsuitable autologous unit being transfused to another person.

5. Legal liability

Excluding unused autologous donations from general use has become the standard of care throughout the United States. If a "crossed over" autologous unit led to disease transmission, legal liability for the hospital and the physician could be considerable. The American Medical Association and the American Association of Blood Banks have adopted a binding policy discouraging the "crossover" of unused autologous Blood units to the allogeneic volunteer Blood supply.

 


SUMMARY

Options for using autologous Blood for planned surgical procedures include: (1) preoperative autologous Blood donation (PABD), 2) intraoperative Blood salvage, (3) postoperative Blood salvage, and (4) acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH).

The use of autologous techniques can decrease or eliminate exposure of patients to allogeneic Blood. Although currently the risks of adverse events related to transfusion with allogeneic Blood are low, autologous transfusion remains the safest option. Autologous Blood transfusion techniques should be used for eligible patients likely to require transfusion but should not be started for procedures in which transfusion is unlikely.

An effective preoperative autologous donation program depends on cooperation among the patient, doctor, and Blood collection facility. The physician must weigh the expected risks and benefits of autologous Blood use for each patient prior to requesting PABD, perioperative Blood salvage, and/or ANH and prior to reinfusing the Blood. With individualized and careful planning, problems of insufficient autologous donations, unnecessary donations or Blood salvage procedures, and unnecessary transfusions may be avoided. An organized "team approach" is needed to select the appropriate equipment and ensure safe transfusion practice.

For further information on autologous Blood trans-fusion, contact:

Your institution's transfusion service or your local Blood collection facility
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Education Program Information Center P.O. Box 30105 Bethesda, MD 20824-0105
American Association of Blood Banks 8101 Glenbrook Road Bethesda, MD 20814-2749

 


REFERENCE

1. National Blood Resource Education Program Expert Panel. The use of autologous Blood. JAMA. 1990;263:414-417.

2. Dodd RY. The risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:419-421.

3. Selik RM, Ward JW, Buehler JW. Trends in transfusion-associated acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the United States, 1982 through 1991. Transfusion. 1993;33:890-893.

4. American Association of Blood Banks. Standards for Blood banks and transfusion services. 15th ed. 1993.

5. Parkman PD. Guidance for autologous Blood and Blood components. Office of the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration. March 15, 1989.

6. Parkman PD. Guidance for autologous Blood and Blood components, addendum. Office of the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration. February 12, 1990.

7. Quinnan GV. Disposition of Blood products intended for autologous use that test repeatedly reactive for anti-HIV. Office of the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration. September 11, 1991.

8. Code of Federal Regulations. Food and Drugs. Title 21. Parts 600 to 799. Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register; 1993. U.S. Government Printing Office.

9. Friedman BA. An analysis of surgical Blood use in United States hospitals with application to the maximum surgical Blood order schedule. Transfusion. 1979;19:268-278.

10. Axelrod FB, Pepkowitz SH, Goldfinger D. Establishment of a schedule of optimal preoperative collection of autologous Blood. Transfusion. 1989;29:677-680.

11. AuBuchon JP, Popovsky MA. The safety of preoperative autologous Blood donation in the nonhospital setting. Transfusion. 1991;31:513-517.

12. McVay PA, Andrews A, Kaplan EB, et al. Donation reactions among autologous donors. Transfusion. 1990;30:249-252.

13. Britton LW, Eastlund DT, Dziuban SW, et al. Predonated autologous Blood use in elective cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 1989;47:529-532.

14. Dzik WH, Fleisher AG, Ciavarella D, Karlson KJ, Reed GE, Berger RL. Safety and efficacy of autologous Blood donation before elective aortic valve operation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;54:1177-1180.

15. Love TR, Hendren WG, O'Keefe DD, Daggett WM. Transfusion of predonated autologous Blood in elective cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 1987;43:508-512.

16. Owings DV, Kruskall MS, Thurer RL, Donovan LM. Autologous Blood donations prior to elective cardiac surgery. Safety and effect on subsequent Blood use. JAMA. 1989;262: 1963 1968.

17. Spiess BD, Sassetti R, McCarthy RJ, Narbone RF, Tuman KJ, Ivankovich AD. Autologous Blood donation: hemodynamics in a high-risk patient population. Transfusion. 1992;32:17-22.

18. Tasaki T, Ohto H, Noguchi M, Abe R, Kikuchi S, Hoshino S. Autologous Blood donation elective surgery in children. Vox Sang. 1994;66:188-193.

19. Droste S, Sorensen T, Price T, et al. Maternal and fetal hemodynamic effects of autologous Blood donation during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;167:89-93.

20. Kruskall MS, Leonard SS, Klapholz H. Autologous Blood donation during pregnancy. Analysis of safety and Blood use. Obstet Gynecol. 1987;70:938-941.

21. McVay PA, Hoag RW, Hoag MS, Toy PT. Safety and use of autologous Blood donation during the third trimester of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;160:1479-1486.

22. Combs CA, Murphy EL, Laros RK Jr. Cost-benefit analysis of autologous Blood donation in obstetrics. Obstet Gynecol. 1992;80:621-625.

23. Kruskall MS, Glazer EE, Leonard SS, et al. Utilization and effectiveness of a hospital autologous preoperative Blood donor program. Transfusion. 1986;26:335-340.

24. Renner SW, Howanitz PJ, Bachner, P. Preoperative autologous Blood donation in 612 hospitals: a College of American Pathologists' Q-Probes study of quality issues in transfusion practice. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1992;116:613-619.

25. Wallace EL, Surgenor DM, Hao HS, An J, Chapman RH, Churchill WH. Collection and transfusion of Blood and Blood components in the United States, 1989. Transfusion. 1993;33:139-144.

26. Gibble JW, Ness PM. Fibrin glue: the perfect operative sealant? Transfusion. 1990;30:741-746.

27. DelRossi AJ, Cernaianu AC, Vertrees RA, et al. Platelet-rich plasma reduces postoperative Blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1990;100:281-286.

28. Ferraris VA, Berry WR, Klingman RR. Comparison of Blood reinfusion techniques used during coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993;56:433-439.

29. Jones JW, McCoy TA, Rawitscher RE, Lindsley DA. Effects of intraoperative plasmapheresis on Blood loss in cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 1990;49:585-590.

30. Ereth MH, Oliver WC Jr, Beynen FM, et al. Autologous platelet-rich plasma does not reduce transfusion of homologous Blood products in patients undergoing repeat valvular surgery. Anesthesiology. 1993;79:540-547.

31. Tobe CE, Vocelka C, Sepulvada R, et al. Infusion of autologous platelet-rich plasma does not reduce Blood loss and product use after coronary artery bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993;105:1007-1013.

32. Vedrinne C, Girard C, Jegaden O, et al. Reduction in Blood loss and Blood use after cardiopulmonary bypass with high-dose aprotinin versus autologous fresh whole Blood transfusion. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1992;6:319-323.

33. Wong CA, Franklin ML, Wade LD. Coagulation tests, Blood loss, and transfusion requirements in platelet-rich plasmapheresed versus nonpheresed cardiac surgery patients. Anesth Analg. 1994;78:29-36.

34. Shulman IA. 1992. CAP Surveys, Set J-C. Comprehensive Transfusion Medicine Survey, College of American Pathologists.

35. Linden JV, Paul B, Dressler KP. A report of 104 transfusion errors in New York State. Transfusion. 1992;32:601-606.

36. Brugnara C, Chambers LA, Malynn E, Goldberg MA, Kruskall MS. Red Blood cell regeneration induced by subcutaneous recombinant erythropoietin: iron-deficient erythropoiesis in iron-replete subjects. Blood. 1993;81:956-964.

37. Goodnough LT, Rudnick S, Price TH, et al. Increased preoperative collection of autologous Blood with recombinant human erythropoietin therapy. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:1163-1168.

38. Mercuriali F, Zanella A, Barosi G, et al. Use of erythropoietin to increase the volume of autologous Blood donated by orthopedic patients. Transfusion. 1993;33:55 60.

39. Ray JM, Flynn JC, Bierman AH. Erythrocyte survival following intraoperative autotransfusion in spinal surgery: an in vivo comparative study and 5-year update. Spine. 1986;11:879-882.

40. Kent P, Ashley S, Thorley PJ, Shaw A, Parkin A, Kester RC. 24-hour survival of autotransfused red cells in elective aortic surgery: a comparison of two intraoperative autotransfusion systems. Br J Surg. 1991;78:1473-1475.

41. Hallett JW Jr, Popovsky M, Ilstrup D. Minimizing Blood transfusions during abdominal aortic surgery: recent advances in rapid autotransfusion. J Vasc Surg. 1987;5:601-606.

42. Laub GW, Dharan M, Riebman JB, et al. The impact of intraoperative autotransfusion on cardiac surgery. A prospective randomized double-blind study. Chest. 1993;104:686-689.

43. Elawad AA, Fredin H. Intraoperative autotransfusion in hip arthroplasty. A retrospective study of 214 cases with matched controls. Acta Orthop Scand. 1992;63:369-372.

44. Horst HM, Dlugos S, Fath JJ, Sorensen VJ, Obeid FN, Bivins BA. Coagulopathy and intraoperative Blood salvage (IBS). J Trauma. 1992;32:646-652.

45. Ozmen V, McSwain NE Jr, Nichols RL, Smith J, Flint LM. Autotransfusion of potentially culture-positive Blood (CPB) in abdominal trauma: preliminary data from a prospective study. J Trauma. 1992;32:36-39.

46. Timberlake GA, McSwain NE Jr. Autotransfusion of Blood contaminated by enteric contents: a potentially life-saving measure in the massively hemorrhaging trauma patient? J Trauma. 1988;28:854-857.

47. Fujimoto J, Okamoto E, Yamanaka N, et al. Efficacy of autotransfusion in hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Arch Surg. 1993;128:1064-1069.

48. Hart OJ III, Klimberg IW, Wajsman Z, Baker J. Intraoperative autotransfusion in radical cystectomy for carcinoma of the bladder. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1989;168:302-306.

49. Miller GV, Ramsden CW, Primrose JN. Autologous transfusion: an alternative to transfusion with banked Blood during surgery for cancer. Br J Surg. 1991;78:713-715.

50. Zulim RA, Rocco M, Goodnight JE Jr, Smith GJ, Krag DN, Schneider PD. Intraoperative autotransfusion in hepatic resection for malignancy. Is it safe? Arch Surg. 1993;128:206-211.

51. Long GW, Glover JL, Bendick PJ, et al. Cell washing versus immediate reinfusion of intraoperatively shed Blood during abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Am J Surg. 1993;166:97-102.

52. Ouriel K, Shortell CK, Green RM, DeWeese JA. Intraoperative autotransfusion in aortic surgery. J Vasc Surg. 1993;18:16-22.

53. American Association of Blood Banks. Guidelines for Blood salvage and reinfusion in surgery and trauma. 1993.

54. Ward HB, Smith RR, Landis KP, Nemzek TG, Dalmasso AP, Swaim WR. Prospective, randomized trial of autotransfusion after routine cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993;56:137-141.

55. Wahl GW, Feins RH, Alfieres G, Bixby K. Reinfusion of shed Blood after coronary operation causes elevation of cardiac enzyme levels. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;53:624-627.

56. Heddle NM, Brox WT, Klama LN, Dickson LL, Levine MN. A randomized trial on the efficacy of an autologous Blood drainage and transfusion device in patients undergoing elective knee arthroplasty. Transfusion. 1992;32:742-746.

57. Martin JW, Whiteside LA, Milliano MT, Reedy ME. Postoperative Blood retrieval and transfusion in cementless total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 1992;7:204-210. 58. Evans RL, Rubash HE, Albrecht SA. The efficacy of postoperative autotransfusion in total joint arthroplasty. Orthop Nurs. 1993;12:11-18.

59. Umlas J, Foster R, Dalal S, et al. Red cell loss following orthopedic surgery; the case against postoperative salvage. Transfusion. 1994;34:402-406.

60. Blevins FT, Shaw B, Valeri CR, Kasser J, Hall J. Reinfusion of shed Blood after orthopaedic procedures in children and adolescents. J Bone Joint Surg. 1993;75-A:363-371.

61. Clements DH, Sculco TP, Burke SW, Mayer K, Levine DB. Salvage and reinfusion of postoperative sanguineous wound drainage. A preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg. 1992;74-A:646-651.

62. Faris PM, Ritter MA, Keating EM, Valeri CR. Unwashed filtered shed Blood collected after knee and hip arthroplasties. A source of autologous red Blood cells. J Bone Joint Surg. 1991;73-A:1169-1178.

63. Woda R, Tetzlaff JE. Upper airway oedema following autologous Blood transfusion from a wound drainage system. Can J Anaesth. 1992;39:290-292.

64. Umlas J, Jacobson MS, Kevy SV. Survival and half-life of red cells salvaged after hip and knee replacement surgery. Transfusion. 1993;33:591-593.

65. Symbas PN, Levin JM, Ferrair SL, Sybers RG. A study of autotransfusion from hemothorax. S Med J. 1969;62:672-674.

66. Griffith LD, Billman GF, Daily PO, Lane TA. Apparent coagulopathy caused by infusion of shed mediastinal Blood and its prevention by washing of the infusate. Ann Thorac Surg. 1989;47:400-406.

67. Gravlee GP, Hopkins MB, Yetter CR, Buss DH. Heparin content of washed red Blood cells from the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1992;6:140-142.

68. Rouge P, Fourquet D, Depoix-Joseph JP, Nguyen F, Barthelemy R. Heparin removal in three intraoperative Blood savers in cardiac surgery. Appl Cardiopul Pathophysiol. 1993;5:4-8.

69. Aaron RK, Beazley RM, Riggle GC. Hematologic integrity after intraoperative allotransfusion. Comparison with bank Blood. Arch Surg. 1974;108:831-837.

70. Stehling L, Zauder HL. Acute normovolemic hemodilution. Transfusion. 1991;31:857-868.

71. Weiskopf RB. Mathematical analysis of isovolemic hemodilution indicates it can decrease need for allogenic transfusion. Transfusion. In press.

72. Brecher ME, Rosenfeld M. Mathematical and computer modeling of acute normovolemic hemodilution. Transfusion. 1994;34:176-179.

73. Lorentz A, Osswald PM, Schilling M, Jani L. A comparison of autologous transfusion procedures in hip surgery. Anaesthesist. 1991;40:204-213.

74. Ness PM, Bourke DL, Walsh PC. A randomized trial of perioperative hemodilution versus transfusion of preoperatively deposited autologous Blood in elective surgery. Transfusion. 1992;31:226-230.

75. Rose D, Coutsoftides T. Intraoperative normovolemic hemodilution. J Surg Res. 1981;31:374-381.

76. Bourke DL, Smith TC. Estimating allowable hemodilution. Anesthesiology. 1974;41:609-612.

77. Gross JB. Estimating allowable Blood loss: corrected for dilution. Anesthesiology. 1983;58;277-280.

78. Office of Medical Applications of Research. National Institutes of Health. Perioperative red Blood cell transfusion. JAMA. 1988;260:2700-2703.

79. Gould SA. Should the same indications be used for allogeneic and autologous Blood? The autologous dilemma. Transfusion. In press.

80. Miller RD, von Ehrenburg W. Should indications for autologous and homologous transfusion be the same? Transfusion. In press.

81. Neuwirth BR, White RP Jr, Collins ML, Phillips C. Recovery following orthognathic surgery and autologous Blood transfusion. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 1992;7:221-228.

NOTE: The above document is based on materials provided by The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health, an agency of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.


 

 

 

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